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      美國國家科學院電子煙研究報告:電子煙好壞知多少

      kira86 于2018-10-19發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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      美國國家科學院(NAS)公布一項新的報告,報告整合800多項關于電子煙對使用者健康影響的科學研究。

      電子煙2.jpg

      Report: What’s Known About the Harms and Benefits of E-Cigarettes

      電子煙好壞知多少

      The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NAS) has released a new report looking at more than 800 scientific studies about the effects of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on users’ health.

      美國國家科學院(NAS)公布一項新的報告,報告整合800多項關于電子煙對使用者健康影響的科學研究。

      The study, mandated by Congress, is the most comprehensive analysis of existing research about e-cigarettes.

      此項研究由國會授權,全面分析了電子煙的影響。

      The report draws dozens of conclusions about a range of public health impacts of e-cigarettes.

      報告得出了一系列關于電子煙對公眾健康影響的結論,

      However, it does not conclude whether the overall impact is either positive or negative.

      但并未提及整體影響是好是壞。

      The report pays special attention to the impact of e-cigarettes on children and teenagers, who use them at higher rates than adults do.

      報告主要關注電子煙對兒童和青少年的影響,因為這些群體使用電子煙的頻率比成人高。

      Conclusions from the report:

      相關結論

      Exposure to nicotine varies, depending on the device, the e-liquid used in the device, and how the user operates it.

      個體攝入尼古丁的多少因電子煙中煙油的含量以及個體操作電子煙的方式而異。

      Experienced adult users of e-cigarettes can get just as much nicotine as from regular cigarettes. Nicotine is the addictive drug in tobacco.

      有經驗的成年使用者攝入的尼古丁可能和吸煙一樣多。

      Most e-cigarettes contain and emit a variety of substances in addition to nicotine that could be toxic.

      大部分電子煙含有并釋放多種除尼古丁以外的物質,而這些物質可能有毒。

      There is generally far less exposure to these other toxic substances from e-cigarettes than from regular cigarettes.

      但相比普通卷煙,人們接觸電子煙釋放的其他有毒物質就少得多了。

      Using e-cigarettes can be addictive.

      電子煙可能上癮。

      There is some evidence that the severity of an addiction to e-cigarettes likely depends on many factors, including the type and brand of the device, and the nicotine concentration and flavoring in the e-liquid used.

      有證據表明對電子煙的成癮程度取決于多種因素,這其中就包括使用的電子煙的品牌和類型,以及煙油中尼古丁和香料的含量。

      There is some evidence that the severity of an addiction to e-cigarettes is lower than for regular cigarettes.

      另有證據表明人們對電子煙的成癮嚴重程度比普通卷煙要低得多。

      Completely switching to e-cigarettes reduces the exposure to many toxins and cancer-causing substances in regular cigarettes.

      用電子煙完全代替普通卷煙可以減少人們接觸有毒物質和致癌物質的種類。

      However, many adults who use e-cigarettes also continue to use other tobacco products, too.

      然而,許多成年人在選用電子煙的同時,仍繼續吸食卷煙;

      In the short term, completely switching to e-cigarettes can lower the harmful effects to the body caused by smoking.

      短期而言,完全使用電子煙可以降低吸煙對身體的有害影響。

      Long-term effects are not yet clear because e-cigarettes are relatively new. They have only been on the market since 2006.

      長期而言,電子煙對身體的影響還不明了,因為電子煙仍是新興事物(2006年才面世)。

      E-cigarettes’ impact on youth

      電子煙對青少年的影響

      Young people use e-cigarettes more than any other tobacco product, and use them at higher rates than do adults.

      青少年更傾向于使用電子煙而非卷煙產品,而且使用的頻率比成年人高。

      The NAS report found a strong association between youth using e-cigarettes and their likelihood of trying conventional cigarettes.

      NAS的報告指出使用電子煙和未來吸食卷煙之間存在很大的關聯性。

      It’s not yet clear whether young e-cigarette users who try regular cigarettes will continue smoking over the long term.

      但使用電子煙的青少年在嘗試卷煙之后是否會長期吸食,還不得而知。

      In the past, the US Surgeon General has criticized e-cigarette marketers for using strategies that target young people.

      美國衛生總署曾公開指責電子煙銷售方采用針對青少年的市場宣傳策略。

      Nicotine is highly addictive at any age, but is especially dangerous for children, teenagers, and young adults because their brains are still developing at this age.

      任何階段的人群都容易迷上尼古丁,其中尤以兒童、青少年和年輕人為甚,這是因為這些人群的大腦還處于發育階段。

      Most users, including youth, prefer to use flavored e-cigarettes.

      包括青少年在內的大部分使用者都傾向于選用加了香料的電子煙,

      Many flavors appear to be aimed at children, with names such as Cherry Crush and Cotton Candy.

      而電子煙的很多口味也都是針對青少年,如櫻桃味和棉花糖味。

      American Cancer Society experts weigh in

      權威發言

      Experts from the American Cancer Society (ACS) acknowledge the continuing issues brought up by the NAS report, including:

      美國癌癥協會(ACS)專家坦言NAS的這份報告會帶來一系列的問題,包括:

      An association between the use of e-cigarettes by youth and the eventual use of regular cigarettes

      關于青少年使用電子煙與吸食普通卷煙的關聯性

      Evidence that e-cigarettes are not harmless, but are likely to be much less harmful than regular cigarettes

      有證據表明電子煙并非完全無害,但極有可能比普通卷煙危害小得多。

      The long-term risks of continued use of e-cigarettes are not yet known

      使用電子煙帶來的長期風險還不得而知。

      These are similar to findings of a recent comprehensive review conducted by ACS researchers.

      這些結論與ACS最近所做的一項全面研究結論類似。

      That review concludes that the overall population health effects of electronic cigarettes are complex, and there is not yet agreement among the scientific community.

      ACS的報告指出電子煙對人們健康的整體影響很復雜,這在科學界還沒有達成統一意見。

      The populations most vulnerable to harmful effects of e-cigarettes might be youth and pregnant women because they are more likely than other populations to be harmed by exposure to nicotine.

      電子煙的有害影響主要集中在青少年和孕婦,因為他們比其他群體更容易因接觸尼古丁而遭受不良影響。

      The American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network, the advocacy affiliate of the American Cancer Society, is urging the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use its full authority to regulate all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes.

      ACS的下屬國家政策動議機構癌癥行動網絡正全力敦促美國食品藥品監督管理局(FDA)使用其一切職權對包括電子煙在內的一切煙草產品實行管制。

      The FDA announced in 2016 that it would begin regulating e-cigarettes, hookahs, cigars, and other tobacco products the same way it does regular cigarettes.

      FDA聲稱會于2016年對電子煙、水煙、雪茄和其他煙草制品實行與普通卷煙一樣嚴厲的管控措施。

      But it later delayed until 2022 the deadline for tobacco companies to apply for approval to keep selling their products.

      但隨后將此日期推遲至2022年,即:截止2022年,所有煙草公司如需繼續銷售煙草制品須獲得FDA許可。

      原文來源:https://www.cancer.org/latest-news/report-whats-known-about-the-harms-and-benefits-of-e-cigarettes.html?_ga=2.49422434.518996323.1539409932-127578105.1539409932

       

      注意事項:American Cancer Society news stories are copyrighted material and are not intended to be used as press releases. For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy

      注意事項:此網站所有文章版權均歸美國癌癥協會所有。如需轉載或翻印,請仔細閱讀相關政策(Content Usage Policy).

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