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      初中英語高中英語大學英語英語作文校園生活學習方法英語語法經典教程小學英語

      新視野大學英語讀寫教程第三冊 unit8-a

      hetao 于2013-05-21發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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      《新視野大學英語》是國務院批準的教育部“面向21世紀振興行動計劃”的重點工程“新世紀網絡課程建設工程”項目系列教材之一。 由國家級名師上海交通大學鄭樹棠教授擔任總策劃和教材總主編,清華大學、上海交通大學和東北大學等全國十余所大學幾十名資深教授和中青年骨干教師共同設計、編寫和制作的教育部普通高等教育“十五”國家級規劃教材,教育部大學英語推薦教材。 Unit 8Section (A)Legal and Moral Implications of CloningAt first it was just plain surprising. Word last week that a scientist named Ian Wilmut had succeededin cloning an adult mammal — an achievement long thought impossibl
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      《新視野大學英語》是國務院批準的教育部“面向21世紀振興行動計劃”的重點工程“新世紀網絡課程建設工程”項目系列教材之一。 由國家級名師上海交通大學鄭樹棠教授擔任總策劃和教材總主編,清華大學、上海交通大學和東北大學等全國十余所大學幾十名資深教授和中青年骨干教師共同設計、編寫和制作的教育部普通高等教育“十五”國家級規劃教材,教育部大學英語推薦教材。

      Unit 8

      Section (A)

      Legal and Moral Implications of Cloning

      At first it was just plain surprising. Word last week that a scientist named Ian Wilmut had succeededin cloning an adult mammal — an achievement long thought impossible — caught the imagination ofeveryone. The laboratory process that produced Dolly, an unremarkable-looking sheep, theoreticallywould work for humans as well. A world with human clones was suddenly within reach. It was sciencefiction coming to life.

      In the wake of Wilmut's announcement, governments hurried to draft guidelines for the unknown, afuture filled with incredible possibilities. President Clinton ordered a national commission to study thelegal and moral implications of cloning. Leaders in Europe, where most nations already prohibit humancloning, began examining the moral implications of cloning other species.

      Like the Theory of Relativity, the splitting of the atom, and the first space flight, Dolly's appearancehas generated a long list of difficult puzzles for scientists, politicians, and philosophers. And wildquestions on the topic of cloning continue to mount.

      Why would anyone want to clone a human being in the first place?

      The human cloning situations that experts consider most frequently fall into two broad categories: 1)parents who want to clone a child, either to provide transplants for a dying child or to replace that child,and 2) adults who for a variety of reasons might want to clone themselves.

      Will it be possible to clone the dead?

      Perhaps, if the body is fresh, says one expert. The cloning method used by Wilmut's lab requirescombining an egg cell with the nucleus of a cell containing the DNA of the person to be cloned. (DNA is avery long, ribbon -like molecule that contains our genetic information.) And that means that thenucleus must be intact. Cells die and the cell nucleus begins to break apart after death. But, yes, intheory at least it might be possible.

      Would a cloned human be identical to the original?

      Identical genes don't produce identical people, as anyone who knows a set of identical twins can tellyou. In fact, twins are more alike than clones would be, since they have at least shared the sameenvironment within the mother, are usually raised in the same family, and so forth. Parents could clonea second child who resembled their first in appearance, but all the evidence suggests the two wouldhave very different personalities. Twins separated at birth do sometimes share personalitycharacteristics, but such characteristics in a cloned son or daughter would only be reminders of thechild who was lost.

      Even in terms of biology, a clone would not be identical to the "master copy". The clone's cells, forexample, would have energy-processing machinery that came from the egg, not from the person whowas cloned. But most of the physical differences between originals and copies are so minor thatdetection of them would require a sophisticated laboratory. The one possible exception is bearingchildren. Wilmut and his coworkers are not sure that Dolly will be able to have lambs. They will try tofind out once she's old enough to breed.

      What if parents decided to clone a child in order to harvest organs?

      Most experts agree that it would be psychologically harmful if a child sensed he had been broughtinto the world simply as an organ donor. But some parents already produce second children withnonfatal transplants in mind, and many experts do not oppose this. Cloning would increase the chancesfor a tissue match from 25 percent to nearly 100 percent.

      If cloned animals could be used as organ donors, we wouldn't have to worry about cloning twins fortransplants. Pigs, for example, have organs similar in size to humans'. But the human body attacks anddestroys tissue from other species. To get around that, one company is trying to alter the pig's geneticcode to prevent pig organs from being attacked. If the company's technicians succeed, it may be moreefficient to produce such pigs by cloning than by current methods.

      How would a human clone refer to the donor of its DNA?

      "Mom" is not right, because the woman or women who supplied the egg and gave birth to the infantwould more appropriately be called Mother. "Dad" isn't right, either. A traditional father supplies onlyhalf the DNA in a child. Judith Martin, in her writings under the name of "Miss Manners";, suggests thephrase, "Most honored sir or madam". Why? "One should always respect one's ancestors," she says,"regardless of what they did to bring one into the world."That still leaves some confusion over vocabulary. The editorial director of one dictionary says thatthe noun "clonee" may sound like a good term, but it's not clear enough. Instead, he prefers "original"and "copy".

      What are the other implications of cloning for society?

      The gravest concern isn't really cloning itself, but genetic engineering — the deliberate altering ofgenes to create human beings according to certain requirements. Specifically, some experts areconcerned about the creation of a new (and disrespected) social class: "the clones". One expert believesthe situation could be comparable to what occurred in the 16th century, when Europeans puzzled overhow to classify the unfamiliar inhabitants of the Americas, and endlessly debated whether or not theywere humans.

      The list of questions could go on; people are just beginning to wonder about the future of the worldafter cloning. 

      New Words

      implication n. 1.含義,暗示 2.牽連,卷入

      clone v. (使)無性繁殖;克隆

      n. 無性繁殖系(個體);克隆

      fiction n. 1.小說 2.虛構,想像

      draft vt. 1.起草,草擬 2.征募,征召

      n. 1.草稿,草案,草圖 2.匯票

      guideline n. 指導原則,指導方針,準則

      prohibit vt. 禁止;阻止,使不可能

      relativity n. 1.【物理】愛因斯坦的相對論(指出一切運動都是相對的,而且把時間看作是與空間有關

      的第四維) 2.相關性,相對性

      split v. 1.(使)裂開,(使)破裂 2.(使)分裂

      n. 裂縫,分裂

      atom n. 1.原子 2.微粒,極小之物

      mount vi. 增加,上升

      vt. 1.登上 2.準備并進行;組織,發動

      category n. 種類,類型,范疇

      transplant n. 1.移植的器官或植物 2.(組織或器官的)移植

      vt. 1.移栽,移種(植物等) 2.移植(器官) 3.使遷移,使移居

      nucleus n. 1.細胞核,核 2.原子核 3.中心,核心

      DNA n. 脫氧核糖核酸

      ribbon n. 緞帶,絲帶

      genetic a. 遺傳的,遺傳學的

      intact a. 完整無缺的,未經觸動的

      gene n. 基因

      twin n. 孿生兒,雙胞胎

      resemble vt. 像,類似

      machinery n. (總稱)機器,機械

      minor a. 較小的,較少的;低級的,次要的

      n. 未成年人

      detection n. 察覺,發覺;探測

      breed vi. (動物)繁殖,產仔

      vt. 飼養,繁殖

      n. 品種,種,屬

      organ n. 1.器官 2.風琴 3.機構

      donor n. 1.獻血者;捐獻器官的人 2.捐贈者

      fatal a. 決定命運的 ;致命的

      nonfatal n. 非致命的

      tissue n. 1.組織 2.薄紙,紙巾

      code n. 1.代碼,密碼 2.法典,法規,準則

      vt. 譯成電碼

      technician n. 技術人員,技師

      infant n. 嬰兒

      phrase n. 短語,詞組,用語

      vt. 用言語表達,敘述

      confusion n. 1.困惑,迷亂,分辨不清 2.混淆 3.混亂,騷亂

      editorial a. 編輯的,主編的

      n. 社論

      deliberate a. 1.故意的,蓄意的 2.謹慎的,慎重的

      v. 認真考慮,研討

      specifically ad. 1.明確地,具體地 2.特別地,特意

      comparable a. 可比較的,類似的

      classify vt. 分類,歸類

      debate v. 討論,辯論

      n. 討論,辯論

      Phrases and Expressions

      succeed in doing sth. 成功,完成

      work for 適用于 為... ...工作

      as well (as ) 也,和,除... ...之外

      within (one's) reach 在伸手能及的范圍以內 近的;方便到達的

      come to life 活躍起來,表現生動

      in the wake of 隨著,緊跟著

      in the first place 首先,一開始

      fall into 可分成;屬于

      provide for 為... ...提供(所需的某物)

      break apart 自行裂開

      in theory 理論上

      identical to / with 與……一模一樣

      and (so on and) so forth 等等

      What if … …要是……怎么辦

      bring into the world 生(孩子)

      with sth. in mind 出于……目的

      get around 成功地解決,克服

      refer to 將……稱為 提及,談到 查閱,詢問 轉送至某人以便得到處理或幫助

      give birth to sb. / sth. 生(孩子);產(仔)

      under the name of 用別名

      regardless of 不顧,不管

      be concerned about / over 擔心,擔憂

      comparable to / with 可與……相比

      puzzle over 努力思考

      wonder about 對……好奇;想知道;對……疑惑

      Proper Names

      Ian Wilmut 伊恩·威爾莫特

      Dolly 多莉(羊)

      Clinton 克林頓(美國前總統)

      Judith Martin 朱迪斯·馬丁

      Miss Manners 禮儀小姐



       

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